Fast flair imaging of the brain using the fast spin-echo and gradient spin-echo technique

Karl Hittmair, Wolfgang Umek, Erwin G. Schindler, Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Michael L. Pretterklieber, Christian J. Herold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to compare the gradient spin-echo (GRASE) to the fast spin-echo (FSE) implementation of fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences for brain imaging. Thirty patients with high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted images were examined on a 1.5 T MR system. Scan time-minimized thin-section FLAIR-FSE and FLAIR-GRASE sequences were obtained and compared side by side. Image assessment criteria were lesion conspicuity, contrast between different types of normal tissue, image quality, and artifacts. In addition, contrast ratios and contrast-to-noise ratios were determined. Compared to FSE, the GRASE technique allowed a 17% reduction in scan time but conspicuity of small lesions in particular was significantly lower on FLAIR-GRASE images because of higher image noise and increased artifacts. Gray-white differentiation was slightly worse on FLAIR- GRASE. Physiological ferritin deposition appeared slightly darker on FLAIR- GRASE images and susceptibility artifacts were stronger. Fatty tissue was less bright with FLAIR-GRASE. With current standard hardware equipment, the GRASE technique is not an adequate alternative to FSE for the implementation of fast FLAIR sequences in routine clinical MR brain imaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-414
Number of pages10
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain
  • FSE
  • MR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Fast flair imaging of the brain using the fast spin-echo and gradient spin-echo technique'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this