Familial occurrence of tardive dyskinesia

D. J. Müller, G. Ahle, D. Alfter, H. Krauss, M. Knapp, K. Marwinski, T. G. Schulze, T. Weber, M. Nöthen, W. Maier, T. Held, M. Rietschel

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7 Scopus citations


Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe side effect of neuroleptic medication. Among other risk factors, genetic predisposition is thought to confer suscebtibility to TD. However, there is a substantial lack of studies addressing the question if TD runs in families. Besides sporadic reports, there have only been two studies to assess concordane for TD in first degree relatives [Yassa and Ananth, 1981; Youssef et al., 1989]. These samples comprised 11 and 8 patients-relative-pairs, respectively. Either study found concordance for the presence or absence of TD in all tested patient-relative pairs. We examined 288 patients receiving long-term neuroleptic medication for psychiatric diagnosis using SADS-LA interview and the presence or absence of TD according to RDC criteria. Patients with transient or developed TD and those with a DSM-IV diagnosis other than schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Family history for psychosis was assessed by family history method. Thirty-two patients had first degree relatives with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. We were able to examine 16 relative-pairs for the presence or absence of TD and psychiatric diagnosis using SADS-LA interview. Thirteen pairs showed concordance. This result confirms the findings of the previous reports. Interestingly, the majority of patients-relative-pairs is concordant for the absence of TD (11/13). In this sample of patient-relative-pairs only 22% display TD, whereas in the overall sample 43% display TD. This observation is in line with previous reports [Bartels et al., 1985; Wegner et al., 1985] which found TD to be more likely in patients without a familial component of schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)527
Number of pages1
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 6 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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