Familial interactions and physical, lifestyle, and dietary factors to affect bone mineral density of children in the KNHANES 2009-2010

Sunmin Park, Chung Yill Park, Jung O. Ham, Byung Kook Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We examined familial bone mineral density (BMD) interactions between parents and children and lifestyle factors affecting BMD in the Korean general population of children under 20 and parents under 50 years of age. This cross-sectional study included 2,453 participants (667 daughters, 705 sons, 719 mothers, and 362 fathers) in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for BMD values of whole femur, femur neck, lumbar spine, and whole body excluding the head being in the low tertile in adolescents according to parental BMD tertile after adjusting for physical, lifestyle, and dietary factors. For daughters and sons, there were significant differences in BMD at the four bone sites according to age group, body fat percentage, regular walking and exercise, and milk consumption compared to the reference value for each classification category. Surprisingly, there were no differences in BMD according to serum 25-OH-D levels. Birth order affected BMD of only whole body except head, but its impact was less than that of lifestyle factors. The mean differences in BMD between daughters and sons in the first and third parental BMD tertiles were statistically significant. Notably, the prevalence ratio of whole body without head BMD being in the low tertile increased eight and ten-folds in adolescent daughters and sons, respectively, when parents were in the low BMD tertile. In specific bone regions, parental BMD had a greater effect on total femur in daughters but in the lumbar spine in sons. In conclusion, parental BMD positively influences BMD in daughters and sons after adjustment for environmental parameters. This suggests that the children from parents with low BMD need to make an extra effort to increase BMD through dietary and lifestyle changes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)455-467
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Body fat
  • Bone mineral density
  • Children
  • Parents
  • Serum 25-OH-D levels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Endocrinology


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