Factors predicting BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria: A behavioral-ecological perspective

Stella Babalola, Umar Lawan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


This study examines the predictors of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization status among infants in northern Nigeria using a behavioralecological model. The findings show only 37.3 percent of the children had received BCG vaccine, and reveal that BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria is influenced by multiple layers of factors, including child's characteristics, parental or household factors, community characteristics, vaccine supply and the policy environment. At the child's level, place of birth and ownership of an immunization card are the two most significant predictors. The parental and household predictors of BCG immunization status include maternal use of antenatal care, maternal knowledge about immunization, maternal exposure to child health information, social influence and paternal approval of immunization. Both the regularity of vaccine supply to the health facility and the state of residence are associated independently with BCG immunization status. These findings stress the need for interventions at multiple levels in order to increase BCG immunization status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-62
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Child Health Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009


  • Action research
  • Child health
  • Immunization
  • Nigeria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pediatrics


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