Factors influencing long-term urinary symptoms after prostate brachytherapy

Nelson N. Stone, Jared S. Winoker, Steven A. Kaplan, Richard G. Stock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives: To determine which patient and treatment-related factors are associated with increased American Urological Association symptom score (AUASS) in men who presented with minimal symptoms before treatment for prostate cancer by permanent seed implantation. Patients and Methods: Of 1842 men with a minimum follow-up of 5 years (mean 9.4), 1110 (60.3%) had an initial AUASS of 0–7 and were treated with brachytherapy (BT) alone (n = 491) or BT with neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) and/or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, n = 619). The median prostate volume was 37 mL. Data were prospectively collected on comorbidities. Initial AUASS was compared to last using a Student's t-test (two-tailed). Freedom from increasing from minimal to moderate or severe symptoms was determined by the Kaplan–Meier method with comparisons by log-rank and Cox hazard rates (HRs). Results: The change from pre-treatment score for the minimal, moderate and severe symptom groups was: 3.6–7.3 (P < 0.001), 11.6–11.3 (P = 0.426), and 24.1–16.9 (P < 0.001). For those with minimal symptoms the 10- and 15-year estimates for freedom from worse symptoms were 72.9% and 39.1%, respectively. Cox HRs were significant for EBRT boost (HR 1.45, P = 0.004), RT dose >200 Gy2 (HR 1.25, P = 0.024), hypertension (HR 1.37, P = 0.006), and alcohol use (HR 1.46, P = 0.001). Conclusion: A substantial number of men with initial low AUASS treated by BT experience worsening urinary symptoms with long-term follow-up. Use of EBRT, RT dose, hypertension and alcohol use are risk factors for an increase in urinary symptom score.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)831-836
Number of pages6
JournalBJU International
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • brachytherapy
  • prostate cancer
  • quality of life
  • urinary symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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