Factors associated with sleep disorders among methadone-maintained drug users in Vietnam

Tuan Anh Le, Anh Duc Dang, An Ha Thi Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Trang Huyen Thi Nguyen, Hai Thanh Phan, Carl A. Latkin, Bach Xuan Tran, Cyrus S.H. Ho, Roger C.M. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Sleep quality among heroin-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is not fully investigated in Vietnam. This study explored the prevalence of poor sleep quality in methadone-maintained patients and associated factors. This cross-sectional included 395 MMT patients at three clinics in Nam Dinh province, Vietnam. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to measure patients’ sleep quality. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, psychological, and social support characteristics were collected. Multivariate Logistic and Generalized Linear Regression models were applied to identify associated factors. Among 395 patients, 26.6% had poor sleep quality according to the PSQI scale. People having jobs were less likely to have poor sleep quality and lower PSQI scores compared to unemployed patients. Those having spouses had lower PSQI scores than single patients. High depression, anxiety, and stress scores were associated with poor sleep quality and high PSQI scores. A longer duration of MMT increased the likelihood of experiencing poor sleep quality. Patients smoking tobacco daily or concurrently using drugs had lower PSQI scores than those that did not. This study highlights a moderate prevalence of poor sleep quality among Vietnamese MMT patients. Regular evaluation, appropriate psychological management, and social support, as well as the provision of employment opportunities, potentially improve the sleep quality of methadone-maintained patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4315
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2019


  • Methadone
  • PSQI
  • Sleep disorder
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Vietnam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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