Factors associated with recent-onset injection drug use among drug users in Pakistan

Irene Kuo, Salman Ul-Hasan, Tariq Zafar, Noya Galai, Susan G. Sherman, Steffanie A. Strathdee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Seventy-two recent-onset injection drug users and 241 non-injection drug users were recruited in Quetta and Lahore, Pakistan, in 2003. Trained interviewers administered questionnaires regarding drug use behaviors and perceived changes in drug cost/supply. Logistic regression identified independent correlates of recent-onset injection. In Lahore, a perceived increase in drug cost was associated with higher odds of recent-onset injection, with no association in Quetta. Recent-onset injection was also associated with family history of drug use, group drug use, and sharing snorting/chasing tools. Changes in perception of the drug supply may be associated with recent-onset injection drug use. Familial/social influences were also associated with recent-onset injection, suggesting peer-led interventions could discourage transition to injection drug use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)853-870
Number of pages18
JournalSubstance Use and Misuse
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 2007


  • "Chasing the dragon"
  • Drop-in-centers
  • Drug cost
  • Drug supply
  • Group drug use
  • Harm reduction
  • Heroin
  • Injection drug use
  • Injection initiation
  • Pakistan
  • Snorting
  • Trafficking routes
  • Transit route

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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