Factors associated with elevated ALT in an international HIV/HBV Co-Infected cohort on long-term HAART

Jennifer Audsley, Eric C. Seaberg, Joe Sasadeusz, Gail V. Matthews, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Kit Fairley, Robert Finlayson, Hyon S. Hwang, Margaret Littlejohn, Stephen Locarnini, Gregory J. Dore, Chloe L. Thio, Sharon R. Lewin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk for ALT elevations in HIV-HBV co-infected patients during the first year of HAART; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of ALT elevations with prolonged HAART in this patient group. Methods/Principal findings: To identify factors associated with ALT elevations in an HIV-HBV co-infected cohort receiving prolonged HAART, data from 143 co-infected patients on HAART enrolled in an international HIV-HBV co-infected cohort where ALT measurements were obtained every 6 months was analysed. A person-visit analysis was used to determine frequency of ALT elevation (≥2.5×ULN) at each visit. Factors associated with ALT elevation were determined using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for correlated data. The median time on HAART at the end of follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.4-13.3) years. During follow-up, median ALT was 36 U/L with 10.6% of person-visits classified as having ALT elevation. Most ALT elevations were grade 2 (86.5%), with only 13.5% of all ALT elevations grade 3 or higher. Univariate associations with ALT elevation (p<0.05) included history of AIDS, HBV DNA ≥2,000 IU/ml, HBeAg positive, study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml and nadir CD4 <200 cells/ml. In the multivariate analysis, only study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.04-4.11, p = 0.04) and HBeAg positive status (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.03-4.79, p = 0.04) were independently associated with ALT elevation. Conclusions: In this HIV-HBV co-infected cohort, elevated ALT after >1 year of HAART was uncommon, and severe ALT elevations were rare. HIV-HBV co-infected patients on long-term HAART who are either HBeAg positive or have a CD4 count of <200 cells/ml are at increased risk for ALT elevations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere26482
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General


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