Facial transplantation: The first 9 years

Saami Khalifian, Philip S. Brazio, Raja Mohan, Cynthia Shaffer, Gerald Brandacher, Rolf N. Barth, Eduardo D. Rodriguez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

168 Scopus citations


Since the first facial transplantation in 2005, 28 have been done worldwide with encouraging immunological, functional, psychological, and aesthetic outcomes. Unlike solid organ transplantation, which is potentially life-saving, facial transplantation is life-changing. This difference has generated ethical concerns about the exposure of otherwise young and healthy individuals to the sequelae of lifelong, high-dose, multidrug immunosuppression. Nevertheless, advances in immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive protocols, microsurgical techniques, and computer-aided surgical planning have enabled broader clinical application of this procedure to patients. Although episodes of acute skin rejection continue to pose a serious threat to face transplant recipients, all cases have been controlled with conventional immunosuppressive regimens, and no cases of chronic rejection have been reported.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2153-2163
Number of pages11
JournalThe Lancet
Issue number9960
StatePublished - Dec 13 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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