Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of tshe NEO personality inventory

Paul T. Costa, Robert R. McCrae, David A. Dye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

652 Scopus citations


The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) is intended to operationalize the five-factor model of personality, both at the level of broad factors or domains and at the level of more specific traits or facets of each domain. However, only facets of three of the domains are currently measured. In this paper we describe minor modifications to the facet scales of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness, and the development of new scales to measure facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Conceptual distinctions within these domains were suggested by a review of the literature, and pilot studies provided preliminary evidence for the validity of new facet scales. Item analyses in a large and diverse sample (n = 1539) of adult men and women were used to finalize item selection and to confirm the structure of the Revised NEO-PI (NEO-PIR) at both the item and the scale level. Correlations of the NEO-PIR with a variety of other self-report scales in a second sample of 394 men and women provided evidence on the convergent and discriminant validity of scales to measure Trust, Straightforwardness, Altruism, Compliance, Modesty and Tender-Mindedness as facets of Agreeableness, and Competence, Order, Dutifulness, Achievement Striving, Self-Discipline, and Deliberation as facets of Conscientiousness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)887-898
Number of pages12
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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