Eyelid dysfunction in neurodegenerative, neurogenetic, and neurometabolic disease

Ali G. Hamedani, Daniel R. Gold

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Eye movement abnormalities are among the earliest clinical manifestations of inherited and acquired neurodegenerative diseases and play an integral role in their diagnosis. Eyelid movement is neuroanatomically linked to eye movement, and thus eyelid dysfunction can also be a distinguishing feature of neurodegenerative disease and complements eye movement abnormalities in helping us to understand their pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the various eyelid abnormalities that can occur in neurodegenerative, neurogenetic, and neurometabolic diseases. We discuss eyelid disorders, such as ptosis, eyelid retraction, abnormal spontaneous and reflexive blinking, blepharospasm, and eyelid apraxia in the context of the neuroanatomic pathways that are affected. We also review the literature regarding the prevalence of eyelid abnormalities in different neurologic diseases as well as treatment strategies (Table 1).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number329
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Issue numberJUL
StatePublished - Jul 18 2017


  • Blepharospasm
  • Blinking
  • Eyelid
  • Movement disorders
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Neurogenetic
  • Parkinson

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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