Extraglandular ocular involvement and morbidity and mortality in primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

Priya M. Mathews, Susan A. Robinson, Anisa Gire, Alan N. Baer, Esen K. Akpek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose To report the significance of extraglandular ocular involvement and long-term systemic morbidity and mortality in primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS). Methods This retrospective, longitudinal cohort study included consecutive patients with primary SS evaluated at a tertiary referral center. An electronic chart review was performed and all available data were extracted from clinic visits between October 1999 and March 2019. The primary outcome measures included occurrence of extraglandular ocular manifestations of SS, serological markers, prevalence of malignancy, and incidence of death. Results One hundred and twenty-six SS patients with minimum 3 years of follow-up (median 9.6, range 3.0–15.9 years, total of 1,235 patient-years) were included. Of those, 10 patients with inflammatory keratolysis or scleritis had 2.3 times greater likelihood of death compared to the rest of the cohort (OR = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5 to 4.0, p = 0.01) due to SS related complications. The lifetime prevalence of any malignancy in the entire cohort was 15.5%. The most common hematologic malignancy was non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (4.8%) and the most common solid malignancy was breast cancer (6.0%). Men SS patients were more likely to have a history of or concurrent malignancy compared to women (30.0% versus 13.7%, p = 0.16) and double the mortality (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.4, p = 0.04), independent of malignancy. Conclusions SS patients with serious ocular manifestations, particularly men, may be at greater risk for mortality due to SS complications. The eye seems to be the barometer of systemic disease activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0239769
JournalPloS one
Issue number9 September
StatePublished - Sep 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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