Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disease defined by the triad of iron deficiency anemia, hemoptysis, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is known to cause dyspnea and, in some cases, acute onset of massive pulmonary hemorrhage which is traditionally treated with conventional mechanical ventilation or high-frequency oscillation in conjunction with immunosuppressive therapy. In this case report, we describe a 5-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis, massive pulmonary hemorrhage, and significant hypercapnic respiratory failure. The patient failed conventional ventilation but responded well to extracorporeal life support that was initiated early in his course. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was suspected in light of his response to high-dose steroids and was confirmed by subsequent lung biopsies. Conclusion: Patients with severe pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis can be safely supported with extracorporeal life support when conventional therapies have been exhausted.
- Extracorporeal life support
- Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis
- Pediatric critical care
- Pulmonary hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health