Exploration of Machine Learning and Statistical Techniques in Development of a Low-Cost Screening Method Featuring the Global Diet Quality Score for Detecting Prediabetes in Rural India

Nick Birk, Mika Matsuzaki, Teresa T. Fung, Yanping Li, Carolina Batis, Meir J. Stampfer, Megan Deitchler, Walter C. Willett, Wafaie W. Fawzi, Sabri Bromage, Sanjay Kinra, Shilpa N. Bhupathiraju, Erin Lake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased substantially in India over the past 3 decades. Undiagnosed diabetes presents a public health challenge, especially in rural areas, where access to laboratory testing for diagnosis may not be readily available. Objectives: The present work explores the use of several machine learning and statistical methods in the development of a predictive tool to screen for prediabetes using survey data from an FFQ to compute the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS). Methods: The outcome variable prediabetes status (yes/no) used throughout this study was determined based upon a fasting blood glucose measurement ≥100 mg/dL. The algorithms utilized included the generalized linear model (GLM), random forest, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), elastic net (EN), and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with family unit as a (cluster) random (intercept) effect to account for intrafamily correlation. Model performance was assessed on held-out test data, and comparisons made with respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Results: The GLMM, GLM, LASSO, and random forest modeling techniques each performed quite well (AUCs >0.70) and included the GDQS food groups and age, among other predictors. The fully adjusted GLMM, which included a random intercept for family unit, achieved slightly superior results (AUC of 0.72) in classifying the prediabetes outcome in these cluster-correlated data. Conclusions: The models presented in the current work show promise in identifying individuals at risk of developing diabetes, although further studies are necessary to assess other potentially impactful predictors, as well as the consistency and generalizability of model performance. In addition, future studies to examine the utility of the GDQS in screening for other noncommunicable diseases are recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110S-118S
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume151
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

Keywords

  • GDQS
  • GLMM
  • LASSO
  • cluster-correlation
  • diabetes
  • machine learning
  • mixed model
  • prediabetes
  • random forest
  • survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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