Experimental studies on brain hematoma detection and oxygenation monitoring using PRM/NIR sensors

Liu Zheng, H. Sang Lee, David A. Wilson, Daniel F. Hanley, Sandor Lokos, Jin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Real time noninvasive head injury detection is needed in critical care facilities and triage site with limited resources. One tool missing right now is a small and fast noninvasive sensor which can help urgent care workers to (1) diagnose the location and severity of the injury, (2) to perform on site pre-hospital treatment if necessary, and (3) to make a decision on what kind of further medical action is needed. On the other hand, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is also needed in intensive care unit and in operation rooms. Pseudo-Random Modulation/Near Infrared Sensor (PRM/NIR sensor) is developed to address these issues. It relies on advanced techniques in diode laser cw modulation and time resolved spectroscopy to perform fast and noninvasive brain tissue diagnostics. Phantom experiments have been conducted to study the feasibility of the sensor. Brain's optical properties are simulated with solutions of intralipid and ink. Hematomas are simulated with bags of paint and hemoglobin immersed in the solution of varies sizes, depths, and orientations. Effects of human skull and hair are studied experimentally. In animal experiment, the sensor was used to monitor the cerebral oxygenation change due to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and hyperventilation. Good correlations were found between NIR measurement parameters and physiological changes induced to the animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)437-446
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model and Human Studies II - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 9 1997Feb 12 1997


  • Brain hematoma detection
  • Cerebral oxygenation monitoring
  • Low cost
  • Noninvasive
  • Portable
  • PRM/NIR Sensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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