Exemptions to school immunization requirements: The role of school-level requirements, policies, and procedures

Daniel A. Salmon, Saad B. Omer, Lawrence H. Moulton, Shannon Stokley, M. Patricia DeHart, Susan Lett, Bryan Norman, Stephen Teret, Neal A. Halsey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Objectives. Our goal was to determine whether school-level variability in implementation of immunization requirements is associated with the likelihood of a child having received an exemption to school immunization requirements. Methods. We surveyed 1000 school immunization personnel in Colorado, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Washington. We explored associations between school implementation of immunization requirements and the likelihood of a child having an exemption using logistic regression models. Results. School policies associated with an increased likelihood of children having exemptions included lack of provision of written instructions for completing the school immunization requirement before enrollment, administrative procedures making it easier to claim an exemption, and granting of philosophical exemptions. In the 2 states we surveyed where philosophical exemptions are not authorized (Massachusetts and Missouri), 17.0% and 18.1% of schools reported permitting philosophical exemptions. Conclusions. Inconsistencies in the interpretation and implementation of school immunization laws contribute to variability in rates of exemptions. School policies should be reviewed to ensure consistency with the intent of state laws.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-440
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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