Background/Purpose: The aim of this study was to correlate outcomes in patients with stage I testicular germ cell tumors with compliance to surgical guidelines and to confirm previous single-institution experiences that show excellent disease-free survival rates when treated with orchiectomy alone. Methods: Sixty-three patients were entered into this intergroup study (Children's Cancer Group 8881/Pediatric Oncology Group 9048) between 1990 and 1996. Surgical guidelines for orchiectomy included an inguinal approach, early vascular control of the cord structures, and a hemiscrotectomy if a transscrotal violation occurred. Failure of tumor marker normalization or subsequent elevation suggested advanced disease requiring further surgery and chemotherapy. Survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. Results: The median age was 16 months (range, 1 month to 5.6 years). Progression of disease occurred in 11 patients. The 6-year event-free survival (EFS) was 78.5% ± 7%. The overall 6-year survival rate was 100%. Adherence to all guidelines was confirmed in only 43 patients (69%). Overall, there was no statistical significance in event-free survival rates between patients who had a correct surgical approach and all patients who had surgical violations; however, 4 patients with transscrotal violations showed a significantly higher rate of disease recurrence. Conclusions: Patients with stage I germ cell tumors of the testes have excellent survival rates when treated with surgery alone. Despite numerous surgical guideline violations, event-free survival in this multiinstitutional study was similar to previous single-institution reports. All patients with relapse or progression of their disease appear to be cured with further surgical excision and chemotherapy.
- Germ cell surgical guidelines
- Germ cell tumors
- Scrotal violation
- Testicular cancer
- Yolk sac tumors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health