Examining Student Responses to Frequent Bullying: A Latent Class Approach

Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Bullying is a major concern in schools, yet there has been limited research examining the ways in which students respond to frequent victimization by their peers. The current study explored whether there are discrete groups of children who display similar patterns of responses to frequent bullying. We also examined the associations between the patterns of responding, characteristics of the victimization (form, chronicity, and perpetration of bullying), and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Latent class analysis regarding response strategies was conducted on data from 4,312 frequently victimized middle and high school students. The results revealed 4 common patterns of responses, including passive/low, active/support-seeking, aggressive and an undifferentiated/high pattern. The patterns of responses were differentially related to internalizing and externalizing symptoms, such that the children with the undifferentiated/high pattern were most likely to experience social-emotional problems and were more likely to experience indirect forms of victimization. Implications for future research on interventions with victimized children are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)336-352
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2011


  • Bullying
  • Coping
  • Indirect/relational aggression
  • Peer victimization
  • Responses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Education


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