Fluorescence microscopy imaging has become one of the most useful techniques to assess the activity of individual cells, subcellular trafficking of signals to and between organelles, and to appreciate how organelle function is regulated. The past 2 decades have seen a tremendous advance in the rational design and development in the nature and selectivity of probes to serve as reporters of the intracellular environment in live cells. These probes range from small organic fluorescent molecules to fluorescent biomolecules and photoproteins ingeniously engineered to follow signaling traffic, sense ionic and nonionic second messengers, and report various kinase activities. These probes, together with recent advances in imaging technology, have enabled significantly enhanced spatial and temporal resolution. This review summarizes some of these developments and their applications to assess intracellular organelle function.
|Number of pages
|Published - Aug 6 2004
- Fluorescent proteins
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine