Evolutionary relationships of the primate papovaviruses: Base sequence homology among the genomes of simian virus 40, stump-tailed macaque virus, and SA12 virus

N. Newell, K. V. Shah, T. J. Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Physical maps of the genomes of the two newly discovered primate papovaviruses, SA12 and stump-tailed macaque virus (STMV), were generated by restriction endonuclease analysis. The base sequence homologies among the genomes of SA12, stump-tailed macaque virus, and simian virus 40 (SV40) were studied by heteroduplex analysis. Heteroduplexes between SA12 and SV40 DNAs and stump-tailed macaque virus and SV40 DNAs were constructed and mounted for electron microscopy in various amounts of fornamide to achieve a range of effective temperature. At each effective temperature, the regions of duplex DNA in the heteroduplexes were measured and localized on the SV40 physical and functional maps. By analyzing the data from this study and from our previous study on the base sequence homology between the genomes of BK virus and SV40, some general conclusions have been drawn concerning the evolutionary relationships among the genomes of the primate papovaviruses. The extent of homology among the viral genomes does not reflect the phylogenetic relationships of their hosts. At comparable effective temperatures (T(m) - 33°C), the heteroduplexes between the DNAs of BK virus and SV40 contained the largest amount of duplex (about 90%). The heteroduplexes made between SA12 and SV40 DNAs were slightly less homologous, containing about 80% duplex. The heteroduplexes made between SV40 and stump-tailed macaque virus DNAs were only 20% duplex under the same conditions. When the various heteroduplexes were mounted for microscopy at effective temperatures greater than Tm - 33°C, the fraction of the duplex DNA decreased in each case, indicating the existence of considerable base mismatching in the homologous regions. When specific coding or noncoding regions of the viral genomes were compared, the data indicated that the extent of sequence divergence differed markedly from one region to another. In all the heteroduplexes studied, there were two regions, located near the junctions between the early and late regions on the SV40 map, which were essentially nonhomologous. All of the heteroduplexes studied showed significantly greater homology in the late region than in the early region. Within the late region, the sequences coding for the major capsid polypeptide, VP1, were the most highly conserved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)624-636
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1979

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology


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