Over the past 40 years, public health measures such as universal newborn screening, penicillin prophylaxis, vaccinations, and hydroxyurea therapy have led to an impressive decline in sickle cell disease (SCD)-related childhood mortality and SCD-related morbidity in high-income countries. We remain cautiously optimistic that the next 40 years will be focused on meeting current challenges in SCD by addressing chronic complications of SCD to reduce mortality and improve quality of life in a growing population of adults with SCD in high-income countries, while simultaneously decreasing the disparity of medical care between high and low-income countries. Am. J. Hematol. 91:5-14, 2016.
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