Evidence for a wide distribution of negative motor areas in the perirolandic cortex

Nobuhiro Mikuni, Shinji Ohara, Akio Ikeda, Naoki Hayashi, Namiko Nishida, Junya Taki, Rei Enatsu, Riki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Shibasaki, Nobuo Hashimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Objective: The perirolandic regions were studied by extensive electrical stimulation to clarify the topography and somatotopic distribution of negative motor areas (NMAs) and examine the clinical significance of these areas. Methods: We evaluated the cortical function elicited by electrical stimulation in 30 patients with tumors or intractable epilepsy. The somatotopic distribution of NMAs was examined by localizing these regions using Talairach's bicommissural reference system. NMAs within the lesions of two patients were removed under local anesthesia. Results: We obtained negative motor responses following the stimulation of 30 electrodes in 15 patients. On the lateral brain surface, the majority of NMAs for the upper extremities were distributed broadly throughout the premotor cortex, while NMAs for the tongue were only found in the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. During removal of the NMAs within the lesions of two patients, we documented transient hand clumsiness in one patient. Conclusions: NMAs were widely distributed throughout the perirolandic area, as well as the previously reported regions in the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas likely function in the control of skilled movements; dysfunction of such movements transiently follows resection of these regions, but is subsequently well compensated for after surgery. Significance: The localization and consequences of resection of NMAs suggests their clinical significance in motor control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-40
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrical stimulation
  • Human
  • Location
  • Negative motor area
  • Surgical resection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Physiology (medical)


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