The study was conducted to examine the validity of urinary cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in comparison with the metals in blood as a biological marker of non-occupational exposure of general populations. Participants in four survey sites in Korea (107 non-smoking Korean women aged 30-49 years) offered peripheral blood, morning spot urine, and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Analysis of Cd and Pb was accomplished by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analyse levels were evaluated on an individual basis (n=107) and also on a survey site basis, i.e. in terms of geometric means for the groups in the survey sites (n=4). Cd in urine (as observed, or after correction for creatinine concentration or a specific gravity) correlated with Cd in blood on an individual as well as survey site basis, and tended to correlate with Cd in food duplicates on the survey site basis. Correlation of Pb in urine with Pb in blood was weaker than that of Cd in urine with Cd in blood both on the individual and survey site basis. Pb in urine correlated with Pb in food duplicates either weakly or even negatively when examined on a survey site basis. It was concluded that Cd in urine can be most probably employed as a biological marker of environmental Cd exposure of general population, whereas less support was obtained for Pb in urine as an exposure marker.
- Food duplicate
- Marker of non-occupational exposure
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