The antiviral inhibitory activity of Cidofovir [1- [(S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] cytosine dihydrate, HPMPC, GS-504] against adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) in the New Zealand rabbit ocular replication model was evaluated. The 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) of Cidofovir was determined to be 4.7-9.5 μg/ml against four adenoviruses (two Ad5, Ad8 and Ad14) by plaque reduction assay in A549 cells. Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits received intrastromal inoculation and topical application of 2 x 106 plaque-forming units (PFU) per eye of Ad5 McEwen, a clinical isolate. Cidofovir was administered topically at three different concentrations twice per day, beginning 16 h postinoculation and continuing for 20 consecutive days. The inhibitory effects were determined by measuring suppression of virus replication and by observation of the clinical effects. Compared to the placebo group, the 1% and 0.5% Cidofovir-treated groups showed significantly reduced Ad5 ocular titers, fewer days of viral shedding and less severe subepithelial opacities (P = 0.0001). The 1% Cidofovir group had the lowest humoral antibody titer against adenovirus antigens, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.24). Cidofovir proved to have potent antiviral activity against adenovirus replication and may have great promise for the treatment of adenovirus infection. Further investigation is recommended.
- Nucleotide analogue
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