A live-attenuated, intranasal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) candidate vaccine, cpts-248/404, was tested in phase 1 trials in 114 children, including 37 1-2-month-old infants - a target age for RSV vaccines. The cpts-248/404 vaccine was infectious at 104 and 105 plaque-forming units in RSV-naive children and was broadly immunogenic in children >6 months old. Serum and nasal antibody responses in 1-2 month olds were restricted to IgA, had a dominant response to RSV G protein, and had no increase in neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, there was restricted virus shedding on challenge with a second vaccine dose and preliminary evidence for protection from symptomatic disease on natural reexposure. The cpts-248/404 vaccine candidate did not cause fever or lower respiratory tract illness. In the youngest infants, however, cpts-248/404 was unacceptable because of upper respiratory tract congestion associated with peak virus recovery. A live attenuated RSV vaccine for the youngest infant will use cpts-248/404 modified by additional attenuating mutations.
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