Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is one of the most common outpatient surgical procedures performed in the head and neck region. It is used to treat chronic sinusitis, a disease characterized by inflammation in the nose and surrounding paranasal sinuses, affecting about 15% of the adult population. During FESS, the nasal cavity is visualized using an endoscope, and instruments are used to remove tissues that are often within a millimeter of critical anatomical structures, such as the optic nerve, carotid arteries, and nasolacrimal ducts. To maintain orientation and to minimize the risk of damage to these structures, surgeons use surgical navigation systems to visualize the 3-D position of their tools on patients' preoperative Computed Tomographies (CTs). This paper presents an image-based method for enhanced endoscopic navigation. The main contributions are: (1) a system that enables a surgeon to asynchronously register a sequence of endoscopic images to a CT scan with higher accuracy than other reported solutions using no additional hardware; (2) the ability to report the robustness of the registration; and (3) evaluation on in vivo human data. The system also enables the overlay of anatomical structures, visible, or occluded, on top of video images. The methods are validated on four different data sets using multiple evaluation metrics. First, for experiments on synthetic data, we observe a mean absolute position error of 0.21mm and a mean absolute orientation error of 2.8° compared with ground truth. Second, for phantom data, we observe a mean absolute position error of 0.97mm and a mean absolute orientation error of 3.6° compared with the same motion tracked by an electromagnetic tracker. Third, for cadaver data, we use fiducial landmarks and observe an average reprojection distance error of 0.82mm. Finally, for in vivo clinical data, we report an average ICP residual error of 0.88mm in areas that are not composed of erectile tissue and an average ICP residual error of 1.09mm in areas that are composed of erectile tissue.
- in-vivo data
- stability analysis
- structure from motion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering