Pulmonary fibrosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with scleroderma. Lung inflammation identifies patients at greater risk for decline in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. Factors that are increased in patients with scleroderma with lung fibrosis include connective tissue growth factor, KL-6, pulmonary surfactant-D, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inhibitory protein-1 alpha, soluble interleukin-6 receptors, anti-endothelial cell antibodies, and anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibodies. Potential mechanisms of lung damage in scleroderma include increased production of profibrotic type 2 cytokines and abnormal signaling by thrombin of tenascin-C production by lung fibroblasts, with protein kinase C epsilon as an intermediate in the signaling pathway. Treatment of scleroderma lung disease with cyclophosphamide may have a beneficial effect on pulmonary function and survival. Lung transplantation provides a therapeutic option for patients with scleroderma with end-stage lung disease.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Current Rheumatology Reports|
|State||Published - Apr 2002|
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