Epidemiology of the rhinovirus (RV) in African and Southeast Asian children: A case-control pneumonia etiology study

Vicky L. Baillie, David P. Moore, Azwifarwi Mathunjwa, Henry C. Baggett, Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R. Feikin, Laura L. Hammitt, Stephen R.C. Howie, Maria Deloria Knoll, Karen L. Kotloff, Orin S. Levine, Katherine L. O’Brien, Anthony G. Scott, Donald M. Thea, Martin Antonio, Juliet O. Awori, Amanda J. Driscoll, Nicholas S.S. Fancourt, Melissa M. Higdon, Ruth A. KarronSusan C. Morpeth, Justin M. Mulindwa, David R. Murdoch, Daniel E. Park, Christine Prosperi, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Mustafizur Rahman, Rasheed A. Salaudeen, Pongpun Sawatwong, Somwe Wa Somwe, Samba O. Sow, Milagritos D. Tapia, Eric A.F. Simões, Shabir A. Madhi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rhinovirus (RV) is commonly detected in asymptomatic children; hence, its pathogenicity during childhood pneumonia remains controversial. We evaluated RV epidemiology in HIV-uninfected children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls. PERCH was a case-control study that enrolled children (1-59 months) hospitalized with severe and very severe pneumonia per World Health Organization clinical criteria and age-frequency-matched community controls in seven countries. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected for all participants, combined, and tested for RV and 18 other respiratory viruses using the Fast Track multiplex real-time PCR assay. RV detection was more common among cases (24%) than controls (21%) (aOR = 1.5, 95%CI:1.3-1.6). This association was driven by the children aged 12-59 months, where 28% of cases vs. 18% of controls were RV-positive (aOR = 2.1, 95%CI:1.8-2.5). Wheezing was 1.8-fold (aOR 95%CI:1.4-2.2) more prevalent among pneumonia cases who were RV-positive vs. RV-negative. Of the RV-positive cases, 13% had a higher probability (>75%) that RV was the cause of their pneumonia based on the PERCH integrated etiology analysis; 99% of these cases occurred in children over 12 months in Bangladesh. RV was commonly identified in both cases and controls and was significantly associated with severe pneumonia status among children over 12 months of age, particularly those in Bangladesh. RV-positive pneumonia was associated with wheezing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1249
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Childhood
  • Epidemiology
  • Pneumonia
  • Rhinovirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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