With increased use of expanded-spectrum triazoles for antifungal prophylaxis, the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) continues to evolve. To define the contemporary epidemiology of IFIs in this population, we reviewed all European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Mycoses Study Group proven and probable IFIs in adults transplanted from 2002 to 2011 and determined the incidence and risk factors for IFI and post-IFI mortality. All patients received antifungal prophylaxis. Fifty-three (14%) of 378 allogeneic HSCT recipients developed an IFI. There were 62 IFI episodes, of which aspergillosis (n = 31; 50%) and candidaemia (n = 15; 24%) were most common. Sixteen episodes (26%) were caused by other fungi, including Mucorales (n = 6; 10%) and the following uncommon pathogens: Trichosporon asahii, Arthrographis sp., Cladosporium sp., Geosmithia argillacea and Hormographiella aspergillata. Independent IFI risk factors were hospitalisation in an intensive care unit [ICU; odds ratio (OR) = 6.0], graft-versus-host disease (OR = 5.3), central venous catheter use (OR = 5.2) and hypoalbuminaemia (OR = 0.3 g-1 dl-1 increase in albumin). The 90-day mortality rate after IFI was 57%. Non-cytomegalovirus systemic viral co-infection (OR = 3.5) and stay in an ICU (OR = 2.9) were independent risk factors for death. Despite antifungal prophylaxis, IFIs remain common after allogeneic HSCT and previously uncommon pathogens are emerging.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- Invasive fungal infections
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases