Epidemiology and management of orbital fractures

Antonio Augusto V. Cruz, Gustavo C.D. Eichenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: Orbital fractures are usually associated with ocular and intracranial injuries. The recent literature on orbital fractures is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiology, assessment, and surgical management. Recent findings: In most countries, traffic accidents are the leading cause of orbital fractures. Orbitozygomatic fractures are extremely frequent but rarely addressed in the ophthalmic literature. CT scanning remains the gold standard for assessing orbital fractures, especially with the new CT technology (multislice CT), which has improved the acquisition of coronal images of the orbit without the need for hyperextension of the neck. Several different surgical strategies are used to repair orbital fractures. Porous polyethylene implants continue to be approved by most surgeons. Summary: Orbital fractures are usually part of more complex midfacial trauma. Depending on the main characteristics of the trauma, orbital fractures are managed by different specialists who adopt distinct surgical approaches. Taking into consideration that most complications of these fractures are related to the globe, oculoplastic surgeons in collaboration with other medical specialists are in a prime position to assess and manage these cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)416-421
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent opinion in ophthalmology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Blowout
  • Fractures
  • Orbit
  • Surgery
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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