Enhancing Nutrition and Antenatal Infection Treatment (ENAT) study: Protocol of a pragmatic clinical effectiveness study to improve birth outcomes in Ethiopia

Anne C.C. Lee, Firehiwot Workneh Abate, Luke C. Mullany, Estifanos Baye, Yoseph Yemane Berhane, Mulatu Melese Derebe, Michelle Eglovitch, Nebiyou Fasil, Ingrid E. Olson, Workagegnehu Tarekegn Kidane, Tigest Shiferaw, Fisseha Shiferie, Fitsum Tsegaye, Sitota Tsegaye, Kalkidan Yibeltal, Grace J. Chan, Parul Christian, Sheila Isanaka, Yunhee Kang, Chunling LuMandefro M. Mengistie, Rose L. Molina, Michele D. Stojanov, Fred Van Dyk, Amare Worku Tadesse, Asresie T. Wondale, Blair J. Wylie, Alemayehu Worku, Yemane Berhane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction The WHO Nutrition Target aims to reduce the global prevalence of low birth weight by 30% by the year 2025. The Enhancing Nutrition and Antenatal Infection Treatment (ENAT) study will test the impact of packages of pregnancy interventions to enhance maternal nutrition and infection management on birth outcomes in rural Ethiopia. Methods and analysis ENAT is a pragmatic, open-label, 2×2 factorial, randomised clinical effectiveness study implemented in 12 rural health centres in Amhara, Ethiopia. Eligible pregnant women presenting at antenatal care (ANC) visits at <24 weeks gestation are enrolled (n=2400). ANC quality is strengthened across all centres. Health centres are randomised to receive an enhanced nutrition package (ENP) or standard nutrition care, and within each health centre, individual women are randomised to receive an enhanced infection management package (EIMP) or standard infection care. At ENP centres, women receive a regular supply of adequately iodised salt and iron-folate (IFA), enhanced nutrition counselling and those with mid-upper arm circumference of <23 cm receive a micronutrient fortified balanced energy protein supplement (corn soya blend) until delivery. In standard nutrition centres, women receive routine counselling and IFA. EIMP women have additional screening/treatment for urinary and sexual/reproductive tract infections and intensive deworming. Non-EIMP women are managed syndromically per Ministry of Health Guidelines. Participants are followed until 1-month post partum, and a subset until 6 months. The primary study outcomes are newborn weight and length measured at <72 hours of age. Secondary outcomes include preterm birth, low birth weight and stillbirth rates; newborn head circumference; infant weight and length for age z-scores at birth; maternal anaemia; and weight gain during pregnancy. Ethics and dissemination ENAT is approved by the Institutional Review Boards of Addis Continental Institute of Public Health (001-A1-2019) and Mass General Brigham (2018P002479). Results will be disseminated to local and international stakeholders. Registration number ISRCTN15116516.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere001327
JournalBMJ Paediatrics Open
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 13 2022


  • growth
  • neonatology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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