Emerging therapeutic options in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Patrick A. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Immunotherapies have dramatically increased response rates in the relapsed/refractory setting of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These emerging therapeutic options include blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager construct; inotuzumab, an antibody–drug conjugate; and CAR T cells. Despite significantly improved rates of response, however, CAR T-cell therapy is the only approach associated with durable survival in a significant proportion of patients. Immunotherapies come with characteristic toxicity profiles. Inotuzumab is associated with hepatotoxicity, and blinatumomab and CAR T cells are associated with both cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Furthermore, immunotherapy is not always successful. Several mechanisms of failure exist, including failure to manufacture the CAR product, failure to engraft or lack of persistence of CAR T cells, endogenous T cell or CAR T-cell exhaustion, and antigen escape.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1781-1784
Number of pages4
JournalJNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network
StatePublished - Dec 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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