Emerging role of immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma—Future directions and novel therapies

Jong Chul Park, Noah M. Hahn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Tremendous advances in our understanding of the tumor immunology and molecular biology of urothelial carcinoma (UC) have led to the recent approval of immunotherapy as a novel option for patients with UC with advanced disease. Despite the promising data of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors, only a small subset of patients with UC achieves durable remissions. Because an optimal antitumor response requires coordination of multiple immune, tumor, and microenvironment effector cells, novel approaches targeting distinct mechanisms of action likely in combination are needed. In addition, discovery of reliable immune biomarkers, understanding of mechanisms of resistance, and novel clinical trial designs are warranted for maximum benefit of UC immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-576
Number of pages11
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Combination immune therapy
  • Immune biomarker
  • Immunotherapy
  • Novel clinical trial design
  • Urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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