Effects of lithotripter fields on development of chick embryos

C. Hartman, C. A. Cox, L. Brewer, S. Z. Child, C. F. Cox, E. L. Carstensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Chick embryos at 72 h incubation were subjected to three double shock waves from a Wolf Model 2137.50 Electrohydraulic Lithotripter. The pressure amplitude at the embryo was adjusted by variation of the distance from the source to the embryo. After a total of 120 h of incubation, they were assessed for developmental abnormalities. Early deaths, delayed deaths and malformations were all significantly increased at pressures of 10 MPa with suggestions of possible effects at lower pressure levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-585
Number of pages5
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes


  • Acoustic
  • Chick embryos
  • Embryonic death and malformation
  • Lithotripter fields
  • Shock waves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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