Effects of High-Flow Transesophageal Dry Air on Core Temperature: A Novel Method of Therapeutic Hypothermia

Fabrizio R. Assis, Sravya Ambadipudi, Hrithika Bhambhani, Rushil Shah, Usama A. Daimee, Harikrishna Tandri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is one of the few proven neuroprotective modalities in clinical practice. However, current methods to achieve TH are suboptimal. We investigated a novel esophageal device that utilizes high-flow transesophageal dry air to achieve TH via evaporating cooling. Seven Yorkshire pigs (n = 7) underwent hypothermia therapy using a novel esophageal device that compartmentalizes a segment of esophagus through which high-flow dry air freely circulates in and out of the esophagus. Efficacy (primary objective) and safety (secondary objective) were evaluated in all animals. Safety assessment was divided into two sequential phases: (1) acute safety assessment (n = 5; terminal studies) to evaluate adverse events occurring during therapy, and (2) chronic safety assessment (n = 2; survival studies) to evaluate adverse events associated with therapy within 1 week of follow-up. After 1 hour of esophageal cooling (mean airflow rate = 64.2 ± 3.5 L/min), a significant reduction in rectal temperature was observed (37.3 ± 0.2°C → 36.3 ± 0.4°C, p = 0.002). The mean rectal temperature reduction was 1 ± 0.4°C. In none of the seven animals was oral or pharyngeal mucosa injury identified at postprocedural visual examination. In the two animals that survived, no reduction of food ingestion, signs of swallowing dysfunction or discomfort, or evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was observed during the 1-week follow-up period. Open-chest visual inspection in those two animals did not show damage to the esophageal mucosa or surrounding structures. A novel esophageal device, utilizing high-flow transesophageal dry air, was able to efficiently induce hypothermia despite external heating. Therapy was well-tolerated, and no acute or chronic complications were found.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)88-95
Number of pages8
JournalTherapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • esophageal cooling
  • esophageal device
  • evaporative cooling
  • therapeutic hypothermia
  • transesophageal air
  • transesophageal cooling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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