The cause of the fall in left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV) during a fall in pleural pressure (Pp1) has been in dispute for over a century. We have defined the changes in the temporal relationship between LV inflow (Q̇m) and outflow (Q̇a) in a canine preparation to test the mutually exclusive hypotheses that the fall in LVSV is caused only by changes during diastole (e.g., ventricular interdependence) or only by changes during systole (e.g., afterload). The ability of the experimental preparation to measure the results of acute changes in right heart volume or output and acute changes in LV afterload was validated in open-chest studies with and without pericardial constraint. In closed-chest studies, with a fall in Pp1 during a Mueller maneuver Q̇m reached both its inspiratory minimum and expiratory maximum before Q̇a in 80% of the Mueller maneuvers, invalidating both hypotheses, which each required that one flow lead the other in 100% of the Mueller maneuvers. Review of individual records suggested that if the rapid changes in Pp1 occurred during systole, Q̇a could vary in a manner independent of the preceding Q̇m. These studies suggest that both diastolic and systolic events may contribute to the fall in SV, while causing opposite changes in LV volumes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)