Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke

J. Brigham, J. Gross, M. L. Stitzer, L. J. Felch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Objectives. This study evaluated the biological and subjective consequences observed in individual smokers after implementation of a workplace smoking-restriction policy. Methods. Employees were evaluated for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after their workplace became smoke-free (n = 34). A comparison group of smokers whose work-site smoking was unrestricted served as controls (n = 33). Daily exposure to tobacco constituents and withdrawal effects were measured. Results. Smokers at the restricted site had verified smoking reduction (mean = four cigarettes per day) and significantly reduced nicotine and carbon monoxide during the work shift. There were increases in ratings of some common withdrawal symptoms (cravings/urges, concentration difficulties, increased eating, depression). No evidence of compensatory smoking during nonwork hours was found. Overall tobacco exposure, as measured in saliva cotinine, showed a nonsignificant 15% decline. Conclusions. Workplace smoking restriction markedly altered smoking patterns (i.e., reduced daytime smoking) and reduced cotinine levels to an amount consistent with cigarette reduction. Thus, work-site smoking restriction may promote meaningful, albeit limited, reductions in tobacco exposure and consequent health risks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)773-778
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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