Effects of 532 nm pulsed-KTP laser parameters on vessel ablation in the avian chorioallantoic membrane: Implications for vocal fold mucosa

Matthew S. Broadhurst, Lee M. Akst, James A. Burns, James B. Kobler, James T. Heaton, R. Rox Anderson, Steven M. Zeitels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: Selective vascular ablation (photoangiolysis) using pulsed lasers that target hemoglobin is an effective treatment strategy for many vocal fold lesions. However, vessel rupture with extravasation of blood reduces selectivity for vessels, which is frequently observed with the 0.45-ms, 585-nm pulsed dye laser. Previous studies have shown that vessel rupture is the result of vaporization of blood, an event that varies with laser pulse width and pulse fluence (energy per unit area). Clinical observations using a 532-nm wavelength pulsed potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser revealed less laser-induced hemorrhage than the pulsed dye laser. This study investigated settings for the pulsed KTP laser to achieve selective vessel destruction without rupture using the avian chorioallantoic membrane under conditions similar to flexible laryngoscopic delivery of the laser in clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN: The chick chorioallantoic membrane offers convenient access to many small blood vessels similar in size to those targeted in human vocal fold. Using a 532-nm pulsed KTP laser, pulse width, pulse energy, and working distance from the optical delivery fiber were varied to assess influence on the ability to achieve vessel coagulation without vessel wall rupture. METHODS: Third-order vessels (n = 135) were irradiated: Energy (471-550 mJ), pulse width (10, 15, 30 ms), and fiber-to-tissue distance (1 mm, 3 mm) were varied systematically. RESULTS: Selective vessel destruction without vessel wall rupture was more often achieved by increasing pulse width, increasing the fiber-to-tissue distance, and decreasing energy. Vessel destruction without rupture was consistently achieved using 15- or 30-ms pulses with a fiber-to-tissue distance of 3 mm (pulse fluence of 13-16 J/cm). CONCLUSIONS: This study substantiates our clinical observation that a 532-nm pulsed KTP laser was effective for ablating microcirculation while minimizing vessel wall rupture and hemorrhage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)220-225
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Glottic
  • KTP laser
  • Laryngoscopy
  • Larynx
  • Photoangiolysis
  • Vocal cord
  • Vocal fold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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