Effector mechanisms in HIV-1 infected elite controllers: Highly active immune responses?

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56 Scopus citations


Elite controllers (EC) are HIV-1 infected patients control viral replication to a level of <50 copies/ml without antiretroviral therapy. These patients are also known as elite suppressors, or HIV controllers, and they differ from traditional long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) who maintain stable CD4 counts and are asymptomatic without antiretroviral therapy. Recent studies suggest that many EC are infected with replication-competent virus. Thus it appears that host factors such as innate immunity, the humoral immune response, and the cellular immune response are involved in the suppression of viral replication in EC. This article will review the effector mechanisms that are thought to play a role in the remarkable control of viral replication seen in these patients. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-302
Number of pages8
JournalAntiviral Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2010


  • CD4
  • CD8
  • Elite controller
  • Elite suppressor
  • Escape mutations
  • HLA-B*27
  • HLA-B*57
  • Long-term non-progressor
  • Neutralizing antibody

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Virology


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