Effectiveness of controlled release of a cyclophosphamide derivative with polymers against rat gliomas

K. D. Judy, A. Olivi, K. G. Buahin, A. Domb, J. I. Epstein, O. M. Colvin, H. Brem

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75 Scopus citations


Most malignant gliomas grow despite treatment by standard chemotherapeutic agents. The authors explored the use of an innovative drug, 4- hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC), delivered via a controlled-release biodegradable poly-met to determine whether local delivery would enhance efficacy. This drug is an alkylator-type chemotherapeutic agent derived from cyclophosphamide. Unlike the parent drag, which requires activation by hepatic microsomes, 4HC is active in vitro. Two rat glioma cell lines, 9L and F98, were treated in cell culture with medium containing 4HC. Both cell lines were more sensitive to 4HC than to a nitrosourea, BCNU, an agent of established value in the local therapy of gliomas. Ninety Fischer 344 rats implanted with 9L or F98 gliomas were treated with an intracranial polymer implant containing 0% to 50% loaded 4HC in the polymer, and it was found that 20% 4HC-loaded polymers caused minimum local brain toxicity and maximum survival. These polymers were then used to compare the in vivo efficacy of 4HC to BCNU in rats implanted with 9L glioma. Animals with brain tumors treated with 4HC had a median survival span of 77 days compared to the median survival of 21 days in BCNU-treated animals and median survival of 14 days in untreated animals. Long-term survival for more than 80 days was 40% in the 4HC-treated rats versus 30% in the BCNU-treated rats. The polymer carrier used in this study was a copolyanhydride of dimer erucic acid and sebacic acid 1:1, which was able to maintain the hydrolytically unstable 4HC in a stable state for local delivery. Thus, it is concluded that 4HC-impregnated polymers provide an effective and safe local treatment for rat glioma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)481-486
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1995


  • 4HC
  • biodegradable polymer
  • brain neoplasm
  • chemotherapy
  • drug delivery
  • glioma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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