Beneficial effects of hypothermia on subjects with neuro-pathologies have been well demonstrated in both animal studies and clinical trials. Although it is known that temperature significantly impacts neurological injuries, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We studied the effect of temperature modulation on neural signals in the cortex and the thalamus in uninjured brains of anesthetized rats. Six rats were divided into a hypothermic (32 to 34 °C, n=3) and a hyperthermic group (38.5 to 39.5 °C, n=3). EEG, and extracellular signals from somatosensory cortex and the ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus were recorded at different temperature phases (normothermia (36.5 to 37.5 °C) and hypothermia or hyperthermia). During hypothermia, similar burst suppression (BS) patterns were observed in cortical and thalamic signals as in EEG, but thalamic activity was not completely under suppression when both EEG and cortical signals were electrically silent. In addition, our results showed that hypothermia significantly increased the burst suppression ratio (BSR) in EEG, cortical and thalamic signals by 3.42, 3.25, 7.29 times respectively (P<0.01), and prolonged the latency of neuronal response in cortex to median nerve stimulation from 9 ms to 16 ms (P<0.01). Furthermore, during normothermia, the correlation coefficient between thalamic and cortical signals was 0.35±0.02 while during hypothermia, it decreased to 0.16±0.03 with statistical significance (P<0.01). These results can potentially assist in better understanding the effects of hypothermia.