Eccentric fixation in Stargardt's disease assessed by Tübingen perimetry

Andre Messias, Jens Reinhard, Antonio Augusto Velasco Cruz, Klaus Dietz, Manfred MacKeben, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski

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32 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. To measure eccentric fixation characteristics in visual fields of patients with Stargardt's disease. METHODS. The positions of fixation loci (FL) in the visual field were determined by Tübingen perimetry (TP), using the position of the blind spots in 173 patients. Altogether, 669 visual fields were measured at baseline and during follow-up. Twenty patients were also examined by scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). RESULTS. Ninety-five of 173 patients showed a ring scotoma with central fixation in at least one test, which could persist for up to 18.8 years. The median age for a 50% chance of the development of eccentric fixation was 23.6 years. One hundred four patients (203 eyes) used eccentric fixation in at least one eye; in 154 eyes, the FL was placed below the scotoma and in 33 eyes to the left of it, in 11 to the right of it, and in 5 above it. Once the FL was chosen, it remained within the same visual field area at subsequent tests, varying on average by 1.76°. Compared with SLO results, the mean distance between FL and PRL was 1.90°. CONCLUSIONS. It is possible to determine the position of the FL by perimetry with sufficient accuracy if the blind spot is well delimited. Stargardt patients can keep central fixation for different time intervals before changing to an eccentric FL. Most of them show an FL below the central scotoma, which is considered favorable for horizontal reading.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5815-5822
Number of pages8
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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