Dynamic Prediction of Post-Acute Care Needs for Hospitalized Medicine Patients

Daniel L. Young, Susan M. Hannum, Rebecca Engels, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Lisa Aronson Friedman, Erik H. Hoyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Use patient demographic and clinical characteristics at admission and time-varying in-hospital measures of patient mobility to predict patient post-acute care (PAC) discharge. Design: Retrospective cohort analysis of electronic medical records. Setting and Participants: Patients admitted to the two participating Hospitals from November 2016 through December 2019 with ≥72 hours in a general medicine service. Methods: Discharge location (PAC vs home) was the primary outcome, and 2 time-varying measures of patient mobility, Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Mobility “6-clicks” and Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility, were the primary predictors. Other predictors included demographic and clinical characteristics. For each day of hospitalization, we predicted discharge to PAC using the demographic and clinical characteristics and most recent mobility data within a random forest (RF) for survival, longitudinal, and multivariate (RF-SLAM) data. A regression tree for the daily predicted probabilities of discharge to PAC was constructed to represent a global summary of the RF. Results: There were 23,090 total patients and compared to PAC, those discharged home were younger (64 vs 71), had shorter length of stay (5 vs 8 days), higher AM-PAC at admission (43 vs 32), and average AM-PAC throughout hospitalization (45 vs 35). AM-PAC was the most important predictor, followed by age, and whether the patient lives alone. The area under the hospital day–specific receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.76 to 0.79 during the first 5 days. The global summary tree explained 75% of the variation in predicted probabilities for PAC from the RF. Sensitivity (75%), specificity (70%), and accuracy (72%) were maximized at a PAC probability threshold of 40%. Conclusions and Implications: Daily assessment of patient mobility should be part of routine practice to help inform care planning by hospital teams. Our prediction model could be used as a valuable tool by multidisciplinary teams in the discharge planning process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104939
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2024


  • Hospitalization
  • hospitals
  • mobility limitation
  • patient discharge
  • retrospective studies
  • subacute care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing
  • Health Policy
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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