Gyrase is an essential bacterial molecular motor that supercoils DNA using a conformational cycle in which chiral wrapping of > 100 base pairs confers directionality on topoisomerization. To understand the mechanism of this nucleoprotein machine, global structural transitions must be mapped onto the nucleotide cycle of ATP binding, hydrolysis and product release. Here we investigate coupling mechanisms using single-molecule tracking of DNA rotation and contraction during Escherichia coli gyrase activity under varying nucleotide conditions. We find that ADP must be exchanged for ATP to drive the rate-limiting remodeling transition that generates the chiral wrap. ATP hydrolysis accelerates subsequent duplex strand passage and is required for resetting the enzyme and recapturing transiently released DNA. Our measurements suggest how gyrase coordinates DNA rearrangements with the dynamics of its ATP-driven protein gate, how the motor minimizes futile cycles of ATP hydrolysis and how gyrase may respond to changing cellular energy levels to link gene expression with metabolism.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Nature chemical biology|
|State||Published - Jun 1 2018|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology