Dual Sensory Impairment and Perceived Everyday Discrimination in the United States

Ahmed F. Shakarchi, Lama Assi, Joshua R. Ehrlich, Jennifer A. Deal, Nicholas S. Reed, Bonnielin K. Swenor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Importance: Perceived everyday discrimination is a psychosocial stressor linked to adverse health outcomes, including mortality. Objective: To assess the association of vision impairment (VI), hearing impairment (HI), and dual sensory impairments (DSI) with everyday discrimination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of the Health and Retirement Study 2006 and 2008 surveys, a US population-based survey that included noninstitutionalized adults 51 years and older. Analyses were weighted to account for complex sample design and differential nonresponse. Data were analyzed between October 2019 and November 2019. Exposures: Participants rated their vision and hearing, using eyeglasses and/or hearing aids if applicable, on a Likert scale (poor, fair, good, very good, and excellent). Sensory impairment was defined as poor or fair ability in the relevant modality, and sensory impairment was categorized as neither sensory impairment (NSI), VI alone, HI alone, and DSI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Perceived everyday discrimination was measured on the validated 5-question Williams scale (range 0 to 5). Linear regression models estimated differences in discrimination scores by sensory categories, adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, non-US birth, body mass index, relationship status, net household wealth, and number of chronic diseases (among diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, nonskin cancer, and arthritis). Results: The sample included 13092 individuals. After weighting the sample to be representative of the US population, 11.7% had VI alone, 13.1% HI alone, and 7.9% DSI. In the fully adjusted model, participants with VI alone (β [change in discrimination score], 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.13), HI alone (β = 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.11), and DSI (β = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.16-0.29) perceived greater discrimination compared with participants with NSI. The DSI group perceived greater discrimination than VI alone or HI alone. Conclusions and Relevance: Older adults with VI or HI in the United States perceive greater everyday discrimination than older adults with NSI, and those with DSI perceive even more discrimination than those with either VI or HI alone. These results provide insight into the social impact of sensory loss and highlight a need to identify and address reasons for discrimination toward older adults with VI and HI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1227-1233
Number of pages7
JournalJAMA ophthalmology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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