Drugs affecting urinary output

Diane S. Aschenbrenner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


• Diuretics are used widely to treat conditions in which increased extracellular fluid and edema are problems. Examples include hypertension, CHF, cirrhosis, renal disorders, intracranial pressure, and intraocular pressure. • Diuretics work along the renal tubule and inhibit sodium and water reabsorption to increase water loss. The degree of diuretic effect depends on the section of the tubule in which the drug works. • Diuretic drugs affect the excretion and reabsorption of other electrolytes, especially potassium, leading to one of the major adverse effects of diuretic therapy, an electrolyte imbalance. • Thiazide and loop diuretics are the two classes of diuretics most frequently used. • To prevent hypokalemia, patients taking non-potassiumsparing diuretics may need to increase their dietary intake of potassium or take supplements. Conversely, patients taking potassium-sparing diuretics are at risk for hyperkalemia and need to avoid excess potassium intake. • Osmotic diuretics work by increasing the osmotic pressure within the vascular space. They are used primarily in ARF, in increased intracranial pressure, in increased intraocular pressure, and to promote excretion in the urine of toxic substances. • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work by a different mechanism to cause a mild diuresis. They are used in treating open-angle glaucoma. • Tolterodine is an antimuscarinic used to treat overactive bladder disease. Tolterodine selectively blocks muscarinic receptors in the bladder to produce its effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDrug Therapy in Nursing
PublisherWolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP)
Number of pages29
ISBN (Electronic)9781469819174
ISBN (Print)9781451187663
StatePublished - Nov 7 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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