Drug abstinence effects: opioids


Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The capacity to produce physical dependence is an important factor in the abuse liability of the opioids, contributing both to their reinforcing efficacy and to the negative public health consequences of abuse. Validated methods for measuring the physical dependence capacity of opioids in humans are the Direct Addiction and Substitution/Suppression tests; however, both methods require that subjects be made physically dependent on morphine or on high doses of investigational drugs. New methods need to be developed. Possibilities include assessment of acute physical dependence and the modification of existing substitution test methods for use with subjects already dependent on therapeutic agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1641-1646
Number of pages6
JournalBritish Journal of Addiction
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1991
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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