Driving status and risk of entry into long-term care in older adults

Ellen E. Freeman, Stephen J. Gange, Beatriz Munoz, Sheila K. West

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

196 Scopus citations


Objectives. Given the importance of driving in American society, older non-drivers may be unable to meet basic needs while living independently. We assessed whether not driving is an independent risk factor for entering long-term care (LTC) institutions. Methods. Data were used from 1593 older adults who participated in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation cohort study and completed an additional telephone survey. Questions on driving status and LTC entry were obtained by self/proxy report. Cox time-dependent regression procedures were used to adjust for demographic and health factors. Results. Former and never drivers had higher hazards of LTC entry after adjustment for demographic and health variables (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.26, 7.21; and HR = 3.53; 95% CI = 1.89, 6.58, respectively). Also, having no other drivers in the house was an independent risk factor for LTC entry (HR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.57). Discussion. Older adults are expected to make good decisions about when to stop driving, but the hardships imposed on older adults by not driving are not widely recognized. Innovative strategies to improve transportation options for older adults should be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1254-1259
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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