Dose and scatter characteristics of a novel cone beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities

W. Zbijewski, A. Sisniega, J. J. Vaquero, A. Muhit, N. Packard, R. Senn, D. Yang, J. Yorkston, J. A. Carrino, J. H. Siewerdsen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Scopus citations


A novel cone-beam CT (CBCT) system has been developed with promising capabilities for musculoskeletal imaging (e.g., weight-bearing extremities and combined radiographic/volumetric imaging). The prototype system demonstrates diagnostic-quality imaging performance, while the compact geometry and short scan orbit raise new considerations for scatter management and dose characterization that challenge conventional methods. The compact geometry leads to elevated, heterogeneous x-ray scatter distributions - even for small anatomical sites (e.g., knee or wrist), and the short scan orbit results in a non-uniform dose distribution. These complex dose and scatter distributions were investigated via experimental measurements and GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The combination provided a powerful basis for characterizing dose distributions in patient-specific anatomy, investigating the benefits of an antiscatter grid, and examining distinct contributions of coherent and incoherent scatter in artifact correction. Measurements with a 16 cm CTDI phantom show that the dose from the short-scan orbit (0.09 mGy/mAs at isocenter) varies from 0.16 to 0.05 mGy/mAs at various locations on the periphery (all obtained at 80 kVp). MC estimation agreed with dose measurements within 10-15%. Dose distribution in patient-specific anatomy was computed with MC, confirming such heterogeneity and highlighting the elevated energy deposition in bone (factor of ∼5-10) compared to soft-tissue. Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) up to ∼1.5-2 was evident in some regions of the knee. A 10:1 antiscatter grid was found earlier to result in significant improvement in soft-tissue imaging performance without increase in dose. The results of MC simulations elucidated the mechanism behind scatter reduction in the presence of a grid. A ∼3-fold reduction in average SPR was found in the MC simulations; however, a linear grid was found to impart additional heterogeneity in the scatter distribution, mainly due to the increase in the contribution of coherent scatter with increased spatial variation. Scatter correction using MC-generated scatter distributions demonstrated significant improvement in cupping and streaks. Physical experimentation combined with GPU-accelerated MC simulation provided a sophisticated, yet practical approach in identifying low-dose acquisition techniques, optimizing scatter correction methods, and evaluating patientspecific dose.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMedical Imaging 2012
Subtitle of host publicationPhysics of Medical Imaging
StatePublished - 2012
EventMedical Imaging 2012: Physics of Medical Imaging - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 5 2012Feb 8 2012

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherMedical Imaging 2012: Physics of Medical Imaging
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • cone-beam CT
  • extremities imaging
  • flat-panel detector
  • musculoskeletal radiology
  • orthopaedics
  • rheumatology
  • scatter modeling
  • system optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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