Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the results and complications of stents placed for initially unsuccessful or complicated iliac percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), the effect of location (external iliac or common iliac) on outcome, and the influence of superficial femoral artery patency on benefit. Design: From 1992 through 1997, 350 patients underwent iliac artery PTA at the authors' institutions. Of this group, 88 patients (88 arteries) had one or more stents placed after PTA (140 stents in total) for residual stenosis or pressure gradient (63 patients), iliac dissection (12 patients), long-segment occlusion (10 patients), or recurrent stenosis (3 patients). Thirty patients required the placement of more than one stent. The indications for PTA in these 88 patients were claudication (48 patients) and limb-threatening ischemia (40 patients). Forty-seven patients had stents placed in the common iliac, 29 patients had stents placed in the external iliac, and 12 patients had stents placed in both. Seventy-one arteries (81%) were stenotic, and 17 (19%) were occluded before PTA. Sixty-six arteries were treated by interventional radiologists, 15 by a vascular surgeon, and 7 jointly. Main outcome measure: Criteria for success included (1) increase of at least one clinical category of chronic limb ischemia from baseline or satisfactory wound healing, (2) maintenance of an ankle/brachial index increase of more than 0.10 above the preprocedure index, and (3) residual angiographic stenosis less than 25% and, for patients with pressure gradient measurements, a residual gradient less than 10 mm Hg. Results: Stent placement was accomplished in all 88 patients with 16 (18%) major complications. Mean follow-up was 17 months (range, 3 to 48 months). By life-table analysis, success was 75% at 1 year, 62% at 2 years, and 57% at 3 years. No cardiovascular risk factor or independent variable was statistically significant in predicting success. There was no difference in success rates for common iliac or external iliac lesions. Superficial femoral artery patency did not correlate with outcome. Conclusions: Although stents can eliminate residual lesions and arterial dissection, these patients are likely to require adjuvant or subsequent procedures to attain clinical success. By controlling the PTA complication and treating the emergent problem, stents may allow for subsequent elective intervention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine